The invention of writing and the earliest literatures on kabba

Brief history of writing

Gilgamesh may be one of the oldest epics. This alphabet gave rise to the Aramaic and Greek alphabets. Particularly with the advent of digital technologies, namely the computer and the mobile phone, characters can be formed by the press of a button, rather than making a physical motion with the hand. The rise of Islam in the 7th century led to the rapid rise of Arabic as a major literary language in the region. Though such lists were well served by pictographs, by BC scribes began to make marks in a script that was later called cuneiform—the Latin cuneus means "a wedge"—to record more complicated information such as historical events. The Arabic language also served to spread the Hindu—Arabic numeral system throughout Europe. Maya writing used logograms complemented by a set of syllabic glyphs: a combination somewhat similar to modern Japanese writing. However, in its time it was so revolutionary that it made the Hebrews a nation apart, sometimes laughed at, sometimes feared, but always alien The consonantal script in which their literary legacy was handed down to us was a great step forward from the hieroglyphic and cuneiform systems But the absence of the notation for the vowels made for ambiguity and misreading What were the vowel sounds in the sacred name of God? Political history - a series of disasters No painting, sculpture or secular literature What they did leave us is a religious literature which is informed by an attitude different from that of any other nation of the ancient world. Main article: Writing material There is no very definite statement as to the material which was in most common use for the purposes of writing at the start of the early writing systems. This is possibly the earliest available pictorial record of the art of writing in India. This is the opinion of the editors of Norton and thus should be taken as just that—an opinion 7 Begun in B. Renaissance and the modern era[ edit ] By the 14th century a rebirth, or renaissance , had emerged in Western Europe, leading to a temporary revival of the importance of Greek, and a slow revival of Latin as a significant literary language. Writing seems to have become more widespread with the invention of papyrus in Egypt.

Gilgamesh was probably a real ruler in the late Early Dynastic II period ca. Below them is seated a scribe recording the interpretation.

History of writing timeline

Without written documents of this oral tradition, there was always the risk of its literature being irrevocably lost due to cataclysms such as foreign conquest or natural disaster. The nature of writing has been constantly evolving, particularly due to the development of new technologies over the centuries. Com: Ancient History. A similar though smaller emergence occurred in Eastern Europe, especially in Russia. To the engraving of gems there is reference also, such as with seals or signets. From Nagarjunakonda , 2nd century CE. Maya writing used logograms complemented by a set of syllabic glyphs: a combination somewhat similar to modern Japanese writing. The narrative is concerned chiefly with Gilgamesh's friendship with Enkidu, his quest for worldly renown and immortality, and his death. Latin, never one of the primary literary languages, rapidly declined in importance except within the Church of Rome. C Begun in B. Particularly with the advent of digital technologies, namely the computer and the mobile phone, characters can be formed by the press of a button, rather than making a physical motion with the hand. C The oldest extant texts date from to B.

Phoenicians, the Semitic peoples of the Palestine coast The Phoenicians have left us no literary texts, but the Hebrews, another Semitic people, used the system to record their history in what Christians call the Old Testament What is the Old Testament?

A similar though smaller emergence occurred in Eastern Europe, especially in Russia.

history of writing pdf

Cities began as centers for administration of irrigated fields, but they soon became centers for government, religion, and culture. This script also heavily influenced the development of the cursive scripts of Greek, the Slavic languagesLatinand other languages[ citation needed ].

oldest written document

The narrative is concerned chiefly with Gilgamesh's friendship with Enkidu, his quest for worldly renown and immortality, and his death. The penthe printing pressthe computer and the mobile phone are all technological developments which have altered what is written, and the medium through which the written word is produced.

Internal and external struggle resulted in the destruction of the cities and the deportation of the population to Babylon B. The nature of the written word has recently evolved to include an informal, colloquial written style, in which an everyday conversation can occur through writing rather than speaking.

Oldest written text

This alphabet gave rise to the Aramaic and Greek alphabets. The narrative is concerned chiefly with Gilgamesh's friendship with Enkidu, his quest for worldly renown and immortality, and his death. Main article: Mesoamerican writing systems A stone slab with 3,year-old writing, the Cascajal Block , was discovered in the Mexican state of Veracruz, and is an example of the oldest script in the Western Hemisphere, preceding the oldest Zapotec writing dated to about BC. Though such lists were well served by pictographs, by BC scribes began to make marks in a script that was later called cuneiform—the Latin cuneus means "a wedge"—to record more complicated information such as historical events. Renaissance and the modern era[ edit ] By the 14th century a rebirth, or renaissance , had emerged in Western Europe, leading to a temporary revival of the importance of Greek, and a slow revival of Latin as a significant literary language. In Egypt, scribes developed a different form of writing. The period of exile ended in B. However, in its time it was so revolutionary that it made the Hebrews a nation apart, sometimes laughed at, sometimes feared, but always alien The consonantal script in which their literary legacy was handed down to us was a great step forward from the hieroglyphic and cuneiform systems But the absence of the notation for the vowels made for ambiguity and misreading What were the vowel sounds in the sacred name of God? Particularly with the advent of digital technologies, namely the computer and the mobile phone, characters can be formed by the press of a button, rather than making a physical motion with the hand. The other variation, known as Eastern Greek , was used in present-day Turkey and by the Athenians, and eventually the rest of the world that spoke Greek adopted this variation.

Region of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers B. Gilgamesh may be one of the oldest epics. The Egyptians built temples and pyramids in Thebes and Memphis; the Sumerians, Babylonians, and Assyrians build palaces and temples in Babylon and Ninevah.

Evolution of writing

Latin, never one of the primary literary languages, rapidly declined in importance except within the Church of Rome. This is the opinion of the editors of Norton and thus should be taken as just that—an opinion 7 Begun in B. With the invention of wood-pulp paper , the cost of writing material began a steady decline. These ancient civilizations were agrarian, developing in the valleys of the Nile, Tigris, and Euphrates rivers. The revival of literary development in Western Europe led to many innovations in the Latin alphabet and the diversification of the alphabet to codify the phonologies of the various languages. The tablets of the Chaldeans are among the most remarkable of their remains. Phoenicians, the Semitic peoples of the Palestine coast The Phoenicians have left us no literary texts, but the Hebrews, another Semitic people, used the system to record their history in what Christians call the Old Testament What is the Old Testament? With this profound familiarity, there is also something infinitely strange and remote about Gilgamesh. Writing is a preservable means of communication.
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History of writing