Hubris in the iliad
After Agamemnon returns his own prize of a woman to her father, a priest of Apollo to prevent a plague, Agamemnon commands that Achilles battle prize of a woman named Briseis be given to him as a replacement. He just threw a boulder in the sea and pushed us back on shore.
In the modern days it would sound strange. However on his journey home, ungrateful Theseus, no doubt puffed up on his own success and forgetting he owed it all to Ariadne, left her behind on a beach.
The first way in which Achilles, who fights for the Greeks, and Hector, who fights for the Trojans, act differently is how they approach war and the violence and death that accompany it.
Again, the event of Hermes appearing before Odysseus to hand him the herb in order to free his men whom Kirke has converted to pigs tells us the important role of the Greek gods in the Greek society.
His arrogance leads to a continuation of deaths on both sides.
The Greeks had one word for what is today described as excessive pride tending to lead to a negative outcome: Hubris. Clearly it was a fault that Greeks, in their striving for both physical and mental perfection, believed should be avoided and it was such an important lesson that it shows up in their myths again and again.
Hubris in the iliad
Female characters in the Iliad seem less influenced by pride than male characters. The authorship of the Iliad and the Odyssey were debated even in the times of the ancient Greeks. They believed that most great leaders and warriors followed a predictable behavior cycle, which often ended tragically. Yet, whoever reads these pieces of literature today can somehow relate to its characters and events. The Trojan forces soon take the iniative and the Greeks are pushed right back to their ships. The land of death reveals to him various facts about his sailors and his family as well through the spirits. Filled with heroes, beautiful women, gods at war, epic battles and one man's hubris. Each hero responds in a different manner to this conflict. When Achilleus reacts against Agamemnon taking Briseis, do you think it is more because he loves her or because his pride has been hurt? But other heroes suffer from this same issue of overwhelming pride, that equally has a sting in its tale, literally in the case of Orion the Hunter. This time was different from the modern times. Since Achilles greatness was known at birth that may be the cause of his often cocky attitude in which he commits hubris.
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