Some of those groups, like the Catalans or the Scottish, never were completely subsumed. States imbue international organizations with power if it serves their strategic ends, but more often than not, such organizations are fairly impotent.
Corruption and scandal even seriously tainted the judiciaries, the most respected and "non-political" branch of government.
Thus, his conclusion makes little sense: "globalization denotes the process through which sovereign national states are criss-crossed und undermined by transnational actors with varying prospects of power, orientations, identities and networks". What are nation-states today and what is their future?
Both trade and financial globalizations tend to move together, and there will always be economists ready to state that it is impossible to separate one from another, but experience shows that many countries, particularly the Asian ones, have been able to make this separation. In the s, when American ideological hegemony reached its peak, the leitmotiv of President Bill Clinton's speeches was globalization and interdependence.
Meanwhile, wealthy investors have made huge profits from privatization and the number of the super-rich has climed dramatically in most countries. Some states have endured, but others may be here today and gone tomorrow -- popping up with impressive fury like volcanoes and collapsing ignominiously like mud huts in a heavy rainstorm.
The bosses of the oil companies, meanwhile, have benefitted handsomely. The sclerotic bureaucracies of hulking monarchies often could not respond fast enough to the demands of their once pliant subjects.
I will limit my comparison to eight dynamic Asian nation-states and to the major Latin American countries 14 that are listed in Table 1 with their corresponding growth rates. Their real cost would be the greater concentration of income in the short run, since, initially, the wages of their less skilled workers would relatively decline and would only rise again if they went through a qualification process inherent to the development centered on industries with higher technological content.