Adult stem cells
Vescovi, A. Autoradiographic and histological evidence of postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. Many of the experiments with CNS stem cells involve the formation of neurospheres, round aggregates of cells that are sometimes clonally derived.
They include: How many kinds of adult stem cells exist, and in which tissues do they exist? Lord, C.
What are embryonic stem cells
Although largely theoretical, the concept has some experimental basis. Lymphoid precursors differentiate into T cells , B cells , and natural killer cells. Glial precursors give rise to astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. Short-term HSCs differentiate into lymphoid and myeloid precursors, the two classes of precursors for the two major lineages of blood cells. Research into adult stem cells has been fueled by their abilities to divide or self-renew indefinitely and generate all the cell types of the organ from which they originate — potentially regenerating the entire organ from a few cells. In adult mammals, satellite cells mediate muscle growth [ 85 ]. In a few experiments described as "preliminary," the human CNS stem cells were injected into the brains of immunosuppressed rats where they apparently differentiated into neuron-like cells or glial cells. Gritti, A. In adult humans, HSCs occur in the bone marrow, blood, liver, and spleen, but are extremely rare in any of these tissues. This results in a shift from a pro-inflammatory environment to an anti-inflammatory or tolerant cell environment. Prospective identification, isolation by flow cytometry, and in vivo self-renewal of multipotent mammalian neural crest stem cells. Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus. Many pregnant women elect to have amniotic fluid drawn to test for chromosome defects, the procedure known as amniocentesis. Dystrophin expression in the mdx mouse restored by stem cell transplantation. Many important questions about adult stem cells remain to be answered.
Cytological demonstration of the clonal nature of spleen colonies derived from transplanted mouse marrow cells. This criterion, although fundamental to the nature of a stem cell, is difficult to prove in vivo.
The search for neural progenitor cells: prospects for the therapy of neurodegenerative disease.
Lois, C. Often confused with adult stem cellprogenitor cells are early descendants of stem cells that can differentiate to form one or more kinds of cells, but cannot divide and reproduce indefinitely. What lies ahead for the use of adult stem cells is unknown, but it is certain that there are many research questions to be answered and that these answers hold great promise for the future.
based on 34 review